Enterpreneurship

Kerjakan secara berkelompok

1. Masing-masing kelompok membuat usaha sederhana bebas seperti usaha membuat olahan makanan, usaha jasa, usaha perdagangan barang)
2. Modal didukung oleh semua anggota kelompok (modal tidak besar dan sesuai dengan kemampuan)
3. Waktu mulai minggu ini s.d. 10 April 2017
4. Dokumentasikan kegiatan praktik usaha dengan video
5. Laporkan kegiatan tersebut dengan membuat laporan keuangan
6. Setiap kelompok wajib mempresentasikan hasil kegiatannya

keterAngan : sudah

status : 100%

bukti :

Raharja carrer 2016

Pertanyaan :

Kirimkan bukti kunjungan raharja career berupa :

-form yg dicetak di SIS

-nim,nama,judul TA/Skripsi peserta RC yg dikunjungi

[pe2-image src=”https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-oi79y9DhQZA/V-yBRArQx4I/AAAAAAAABYI/MD1jTjamf10kljJXmaLNVJLHPIqkvIlqQCCo/s144-c-o/image.jpeg” href=”https://picasaweb.google.com/105093507197827873167/6335580909097710433#6335580905042659202″ caption=”” type=”image” alt=”image.jpeg” ]

[pe2-image src=”https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-YkzX-7Lr4xQ/V-yBRAK3CpI/AAAAAAAABYI/ydHxlVWTx0cTqLSX2tPfCA6430MhQGp-wCCo/s144-c-o/image.jpeg” href=”https://picasaweb.google.com/105093507197827873167/6335580909097710433#6335580904906754706″ caption=”” type=”image” alt=”image.jpeg” ]

[pe2-image src=”https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-yWTy6JNhHDE/V-yBRLZp5pI/AAAAAAAABYI/j99swsa7A3sLDhDYEScpjlPUOvFpsQhnACCo/s144-c-o/image.jpeg” href=”https://picasaweb.google.com/105093507197827873167/6335580909097710433#6335580907921598098″ caption=”” type=”image” alt=”image.jpeg” ]

[pe2-image src=”https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-c_HAoFMORHM/V-yBRCmHuHI/AAAAAAAABYI/9jHJc_pkBe0yGEYD2vIVihTa76LNfOFTgCCo/s144-c-o/image.jpeg” href=”https://picasaweb.google.com/105093507197827873167/6335580909097710433#6335580905557964914″ caption=”” type=”image” alt=”image.jpeg” ]

SKUP DASAR MANAJEMEN BISNIS

[pe2-image src=”http://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-rS9mPNCS_8U/VeU1Fo7_aCI/AAAAAAAAAe4/WVX34oGir5I/s144-c-o/image.jpg” href=”https://picasaweb.google.com/105093507197827873167/9115#6189411633895270434″ caption=”” type=”image” alt=”image.jpg” ]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

hallo nama saya nanang purnadi biasa dipanggil nanang, saya mahasiswa jurusan manajemen informasi yang berkonsentrasi di web graphic design dan ini tabel nilai saya :

 

Bahasa pemograman c++

BAHASA PEMOGRAMAN C++
Sebelum C++ dikembangkan, sudah ada bahasa sejenis yang digunakan programmer yaitu bahasa C (dikembangkan oleh Dennis Ritchie dari bahasa B). C ini merupakan bahasa prosedural, kemudian dikembangkan hingga menjadi sebuah bahasa pemrograman C yang berorientasi pada object (OOP – Object Oriented Programming) yang kemudian disebut dengan C++ (dikembangkan oleh Bejarne Stroustrup tahun 1979).
Secara umum, pemrograman dengan bahasa C menggunakan 2 konsep, yaitu data dan algorithms. Data merupakan bahan yang akan diolah, sedangkan algorithms adalah metode pengolahan.
Bisa dibilang algorithms ini adalah fungsi/cara/metode/langkah dan lain lain untuk mengolah data tersebut. Tapi bagaimanapun juga, penggunaan bahasa prosedural seperti C sangat tidak efisien untuk pembuatan software skala menengah ke atas. Terlalu banyak perulangan, terlalu banyak percabangan, terlalu banyak kode yang harus kita ketikan. Maka, seiring dengan perkembangan jaman dan teknologi, bahasa C ini dikembangkan ke tingkat lebih lanjut yaitu bahasa C yang berorientasi object yang disebut dengan C++.
Apa itu bahasa pemrograman berorientasi object? Apa bedanya dengan bahasa prosedural?
Object Oriented Programming (OOP) adalah bahasa pemrograman yang berorientasi pada bahasa pemograman. Dengan OOP ini kita bisa membuat objek menjadi beda dengan objek yang pertama kali dibuat
kode di bawah adalah kode default standar penulisan C++.
*Kenapa harus ada fungsi main() ?????
*Apa itu #include ?
*Kenapa tidak #include ?
*Kenapa memakai int??? Kenapa int main()?? Kenapa tidak main() saja?? Kenapa tidak main(void)?? Kenapa tidak void main()???
*Apa itu using namaspace std; ???
*Kenapa memakai return 0; ??
Perlu diketahui bahwa kode di atas adalah kode standar C++, ada dapat me-run kode tersebut pada IDE anda dan cobalah lihat, pasti dapat berjalan dengan sempurna. Akan tertampil conlose window hasil dari running kode. Tetapi pada Visual Studio IDE, setelah eksekusi kode maka akan menutup secara otomatis. Memang begitulah Microsoft membuatnya. Sehingga untuk membuat window hasil running tetap ditempat (tidak close) anda dapat menambahkan:
cin.get();
kode ini akan meng-catch input yang dimasukan pengunjung sebelum window menutup. Bila pengunjung tidak mengetikan apa apa, maka window akan tetapi terbuka.

#include ini adalah preprocessor
int main() ini adalah function header
using namespace ini adalah using namespace directive
function body yaitu antara {}
statements yaitu pada code cout
return 0; yaitu return statement untuk menyudahi jalannya fungsi
*Kenapa harus ada fungsi main() ?????
Saat anda me-run C++ program, eksekusi kode selalu dimulai dari fungsi main(). Ini adalah standard dari kode C++. Bagaimana bila tidak ada fungsi main() pada kode anda? Tentu program anda tidak akan berjalan dan compiler (compiler apa saja) akan menginformasikan kepada anda bahwa program anda tidak lengkap karena tidak terdapat fungsi main().
Jadi semua alur eksekusi kode dimulai dari fungsi main(), ini berbeda dengan bahasa pemrograman lain seperti php, actionscript, dan lain lain yang mana kita bisa memanggil langsung fungsi yang dibuat
bagaimana bila kita membuat file .dll (untuk Windows)? Haruskan kita menambahkan fungsi main()? .dll adalah sebuah dynamic link library, file ini tidak dapat berjalan sendiri, file ini bukan standalone, file ini hanya merupakan sebuah bagian dari dari aplikasi utama, sehingga .dll tidak membutuhkan fungsi main(), fungsi main() hanya perlu ditambahkan pada aplikasi utamanya / aplikasi pemanggilnya.

Ada pertanyaan lagi, terutama buat pengguna Visual C++ (dikembangkan oleh Windows), secara default tidak ada fungsi main() dalam Visual C++.microsoft mengembangkan Visual C++ dengan _tmain() yang merupakan non standard sintaks. Apakah itu berarti tidak ada fungsi main() dalam Visual c++ .ada fungsi main() yang tersembunyi yang akan memanggil fungsi _tmain() ini. Ini merupakan programming environment dalam Windows.

*Apa itu #include ?

Line di atas adalah preprocessor directives. C++ sama seperti C, sama – sama menggunakan preprocessor. Maksudnya adalah program akan memproses file tertentu terlebih dahulu sebelum proses compile utama dilakukan.

Iostream adalah file yang kita gunakan bila program kita berhubungan dengan input – output. Input – Output yang kita ambil dari file ini dan kita gunakan pada kode program adalah cout dan cin. Sehingga supaya cout dan cin tersebut berjalan sebagai menstinya kita perlu meng-iclude kan file yang kita butuhkan.

*Kenapa tidak #include ?

File – file yang kita gunakan pada include (termasuk iostream) biasanya disebut sebagai ‘include files’ atau ‘header files’. Pada bahasa C, penulisan untuk include file disertai extensi dari file tersebut misalnya iostream.h. nah, berbeda dengan penulisan pada C++, yang hanya cukup menggunakan nama file tanpa ekstensi (.h).

Dulu C++ juga menggunakan extensi file (.h) pada gaya penulisan, tetapi untuk style yang sekarang tidak diperlukan lagi. Jadi hanya cukup dengan #include.

Lalu bagaimana bila ditambahkan dengan .h? tentu saja tidak masalah 🙂

*Apa itu using namespace std; ???

Bila anda menginclude file dengan #include tanpa ektensi .h maka anda perlu menggunakan using namespace std;

Bila tidak menggunakan line diatas maka untuk memanggil cout dan cin dapat dengan :

Std::cout;
Serta
std::cin;

Mudah bukan???
Namespace ini sebetulnya digunakan untuk memudahkan penulisan kode bila program terdiri dari kode kode dari beberapa vendor.

Listening audioscript

1. * Would you like to take a break now?
* Oh, let’s keep working.
* We’re almost finished.

What does the woman want to do?

A. Stop for a while and get some rest.
B. Let the man finish the work.
C. Wait for the man to catch up with her.
D. Continue working for a while
2. * Pete can’t seem to find his keys.
* Has he looked in the car?

What does the woman imply?

A. Pete might have left his keys in the car
B. Pete shouldn’t leave his keys in the car.
C. She can’t help look for the keys.
D. She’ll look for Pete’s keys in the car.
3. * I’ll have to study all weekend this weekend.
* Not again!

What does the man imply?

A. The woman doesn’t have time to study again this weekend.
B. The woman spends too many weekends studying.
C. He will not spend the entire weekend studying again
D. He can’t help the woman with her studies this weekend.
4. * This is the most fun I’ve had in a long time!
* Oh, really!
* I didn’t think you like rock concerts!

What does the man mean?

A. The woman shouldn’t go to the concerts like this one.
B. He really doesn’t know how to get to the concert.
C. He is surprised that the woman is enjoying herself

D. He isn’t having any fun at this concert.

5. * Look at this jacket!
* I spilled tea all over it!
* Relax!
* We can drop it off at the dry cleaner’s on our way home.

What does the man mean?

A. It’s time to go home and relax.
B. He’ll get the cleaning on the way home.
C. They’ll stop for tea before he drops the woman off.
D. It will be easy to get the woman’s jacket cleaned
6. * Weren’t you the only French major to pass the proficiency exam?
* Not exactly! Most everyone did!

What does the woman mean?

A. The man is quite right about the exam.
B. Almost everyone succeeded on the exam

C. The exam was not exactly what she expected.
D. No one has taken the proficiency exam yet.
7. * They’ve just notified Randy that he’s been accepted at State
University.
* Great! That must really be a load off of his mind!

What does the woman say about Randy?

A. He must be relieved at the good news

B. He will have a heavy load at the university.
C. He won’t mind if he isn’t accepted right away.
D. He hasn’t have time to make up his mind about college.
8. * When do you want to start moving into your new office?
* Well, this week’s out for me.

What does the man mean?

A. He’ll start moving out this week.
B. He doesn’t have any time this week to move

C. He doesn’t really need a new office.
D. He isn’t strong enough to move by himself.

9. * Have you called the travel agent yet about getting us our tickets?
* I got Frank to do that.
* He has more free time than I do.

What does the woman mean?

A. She called the travel agent.
B. She bought a ticket for Frank.
C. Frank contacted the travel agent

D. She doesn’t have time to travel.
10. * I’m on my way to pick up some coffee.
* Can I get you some, too?
* Hmmm. I think I’ve already had enough for today.
* I guess I’ll pass.

What will the woman probably do?

A. Drink some more coffee.
B. Stop drinking coffee for today

C. Pass the man his coffee.
D. Go out with the man to buy coffee.

11. * Pam sure has a lot of friends, doesn’t she!
* Tons! And they’re always there when she needs them, too.

What does the man imply?

He doesn’t know where Pam and her friends are.
Pam’s friends are helping her with her died.
Pam’s friends are very loyal
He doesn’t know when he’ll see Pam and her friends.

12. * The students are all here.
* We can leave for the class outing now, can’t we?
* Well, not quite. The bus driver hasn’t arrived yet.

What does the woman mean?

They can’t leave yet
They have arrived early.
The class outing has been cancelled.
The students are late for the bus.

13. * I’m not sure I can finish my paper by this Friday.
* Can I turn it in next week?
* I used to accept the late papers, but not anymore.

What does the man mean?

The woman doesn’t have any more papers to do.
The woman cannot turn her paper in late
He’s used to turning his papers in late.
He can’t accept any more papers.

14. * Would you mind returning my back pack?
* I’m going hiking this weekend, and I need to use it.
* Well …uhm …I’m not exactly sure how to put this, but …when I was
adjusting it, one of the straps came off.

What is the man’s problem?

He doesn’t know how to adjust a back pack.
He damaged the woman’s back pack
He doesn’t want to go hiking this weekend.
He hasn’t had time to put the back pack on.

15. * Did you hear all the noise coming from next door again last night?
* I sure did.
* Do you think we should complain to the landlord?

What problem do the women have?

There are too many people living next door.
They can’t find their landlord.
Their neighbors are too noisy
They can’t get their neighbors to visit them.

16. * Did you know that Frank got a scholarship for next year?
* So he did apply after all.

What had the man assumed about Frank?

He had submitted his application after the deadline.
He hadn’t applied himself all year.
He had’t tried to get a scholarship
He didn’t qualify for a scholarship.

17 * I’ve invited Ted over on Saturday night.
* I thought we could have a formal dinner.
* With the house in the shape it’s in?
* We’d better give it a good going over.

What does the man suggest?

They can go over to Ted’s later.
Their house needs cleaning
Ted shouldn’t come over on Saturday night.
Ted isn’t very good shape.

18 * Just look at that beautiful snow!
* Beautiful for people like you who ski, maybe!

What does the woman mean?

She doesn’t like the snow so much
She’s looking forward to going skiing.
She agrees with the man.
She doesn’t know who is going skiing with them.

19. * We’re out of computer paper.
* If you want to print anything out, you’ll have to come back tomorrow.
* But my paper’s due in an hour!

What does the woman mean?

She doesn’t mind waiting to use a printer.
She hasn’t had time to do her paper yet.
She’ll come back in an hour to print her printer.
She needs to use a printer right away

20. * Frank is going to start writing his book this summer.
* Can we do that and work full time?

What does the woman imply about Frank?

He may have too many things planned for the summer
She should looked for a full-time job.
He’s working hard so he can take the summer off to write.
He’s teaching a writing class this summer.

21 * Why is it that whenever I try to call you the line is busy?
* I have a new roommate, and he likes to talk to his friends.

What does the woman imply about his roommate?

He uses phone a lot
He is very busy.
He hasn’t finished moving in yet.
He is very lonely.

22. * Dot says she’s going to tour both Chicago and Los Angeles in the
next three days!
* She’s got to be crazy!
* No one in their right mind could do all of that!

What does the woman imply about Dot?

She isn’t feeling well.
She is planning to do many things
She won’t mind travelling.
She should leave in three days.

23. * Karen didn’t get home until midnight last night.
* She is really a night owl, isn’t she!

What does the man say about Karen?

She had to study until late last night.
She shouldn’t really get home so late.
She should be more careful at night.
She like to stay up late

24. * How about going to a movie tonight?
* I’m really bored.
* Hmm. I’ve been sort of fed up with movies recently.
* They all seem so violent.

What does the woman mean?

She is tired of violent films.
She has been bored lately at the movies.
She would like to go out tomorrow night
She’d like to eat before going out.
25. * What’s going on with Tim?
* Hasn’t he finished his thesis yet?
* He’s just getting it going

What does the woman say about Tim?

He is going to finish his thesis soon.
He doesn’t have any time to go get his thesis.
His work is going very well.
He is just beginning his thesis
26. * Linda certainly is doing well in her Spanish class.
* If only the same could be said for chemistry.

What does the woman imply about Linda?

She doesn’t say much in her chemistry class.
She feels the same about chemistry as she does about Spanish.
She is doing well both chemistry and Spanish.
She isn’t doing very well in chemistry
27. * You know so much about cars.
* You must spend a lot of time working on them.
* More than I like, actually.

What does the woman say about cars?

She has more cars than The man does.
She doesn’t like cars anymore.
She hasn’t really worked on very many cars.
She sometimes gets tired of working on cars
28. * have you seen George lately?
* I‘ve lost touch with him.

What does the woman say about George?

He recently wrote her a letter.
She’s going to write to him.
She’s afraid that she might be lost.
She hasn’t been in contact with him

29. * Are you up for a swim?
* I just checked the weather report.
* It’s supposed to be cold.

What does the man imply?

It isn’t a good idea to go swimming right now
He’s got a cold, so he’ll stay at home.
He wants to listen to the weather report before he decided.
The water is too cold to swim in.
30. * Janet doesn’t look too well.
* I’m sure she’s fine.
* She’s just been working late a lot this week.

What does the woman mean?

Janet’s heavy workload is causing her serious health problems.
She’s certain that Janet is looking for different work.
Janet has been working very hard and is probably tired
Janet will present her work later this week.

Part B (CT2LB)

Questions 31 through 34. Listen to a telephone conversation between two students.
* Hello. Kathy Larson here.

* Hey, Kathy!
It’s Mark.

* Oh, hi Mark!

* How’s it going?

* Well, I just finished a long paper for my world history class, and I feel like
celebrating a little bit.

* I was wondering what you were planning on doing this afternoon.

* Why? What’s going on this afternoon?

* I wanted to go see the new adventure movie at the Cinema Nine
downtown.

* Well …

* The matinee starts at 2:15.

* It’s supposed to be terrific!

* Packed with action and special effects!

* Actually, Mark, I was hoping to go to Asheville this afternoon to see a new
exhibit at the Folklife Museum.

* I took a course on integrating folktales in the classroom last semester,
and I really got interested in the topic.

* The exhibit this month just happens to be all about the art of storytelling
and the folktales of various people.

* So you would rather sit and listen to folktales than go to a movie?

* I would think that the movie would have a lot more action and excitement.

* This isn’t an exhibit where you just sit and listen.

* This exhibit is made up of replicas of a country store, a kitchen, a child’s
bedroom, and a campfire setting.

* You walk through and stop at each, and, at each stop, you listen to stories
told on tape.

* The section featuring stories told around the campfire by children is
rumored to be fantastic!

* Would you like to come with me?

* Mmmmm. I don’t think that’s for me.

* Thanks anyway.

* Okay, maybe some other time than.

* I hope you enjoy the movie.

* I’ll see you at school!
31. What was Mark doing before he called Kathy?

Watching a movie.
Reading folktales.
Talking to another friend.
Finishing his history project
32. Why did Mark call Kathy?

To ask her to help him think of a good ending for his paper.
To invite her to a museum to walk through a new exhibit.
To invite her out to the movies
To help her celebrate.
33. Why is Kathy interested in folktales?

She has been asked to take part in a folktales exhibit.
She studied folktales in a class
She has a paper to write about folktales.
She teaches folktales to children.
34. Why didn’t mark accept Kathy’s invitation?

He didn’t have enough money.
He wasn’t interested in what she was going to do
He didn’t want to go all the way to Asheville.
He would rather work on his history project.

Part B (CT2LB)

Questions 35 through 37. Listen to a conversation between two students about jobs.

* Gosh. I’ve got to go-I’m almost late for work!

* Where do you work?

* At the Lincoln Inn-and I’m supposed to be there by 2:00.

* What do you do there?

* I work in the kitchen.

* I make salads, and sometimes I help the baker.

* Oh, I’m so jealous!

* Is the pay there very good?

* Well, not really.

* I wouldn’t mind making more, actually.

* But, well, what I’m earning is better than nothing, and I should get some
good references if I continue doing a good job!

* Could you ask them if they need anymore help?

* I’m a pretty good cook, and I waited tables last summer at the beach in
New Jersey.

* Sure, I’ll ask.
But, I don’t think they need anymore right now.

* What days do you want to work?

* Anytime, although I prefer weekends.

* During the week I can only work after classes.

* If they don’t have anything for you right now, would you be interested in
summer job?

* Yeah, I guess so.

* But I’ll be desperate by then if I haven’t found anything!
I’ll keep my fingers crossed.

* And, thanks for your willingness to help.

* No problem.

* But, neither one of us will have a job if I don’t get going.

* My boss hates it when her employees are late for work.

* See you later!
35. What does the man think about his rate of pay?

He thinks it’s high considering the type of work he is doing.
He would like to earn more, but he feels there are other benefits as well
He can use it to buy some good reference books.
He thinks it is about right.
36. Why is the woman jealous?

She is looking for a job and can’t find one
She loves making salads and has experience as a baker.
She was supposed to work at the Lincoln Inn, but they told her they
didn’t need her anymore.
D. She had a summer job last year but didn’t get asked back again for this summer.

37. Why doesn’t the man think he’ll be able to help the woman?

He doesn’t think he’ll be able to keep his own job.
He doesn’t think the Lincoln Inn needs any more help right now
He wants to wait until summer to ask about a job.
There is only one position for a salad maker at the Lincoln Inn.

Part C (CT2LC)

Questions 38 through 42. Listen to talk given in a university class.
* Cars weren’t always put together on a moving assembly line.

* In fact, it wasn’t until 1913 that Henry Ford began to assembly model T
Fords on a conveyer belt that moved the partially built cars past a long
line of worker who each repeated one or two tasks over and over until
the cars were completed.

* Before the assembly line, workers built automobiles one at a time.

* The process was slow, especially since the workers often had to
handcraft the parts as they went along.

* The biggest problem with the old system was that the cars were so
expensive to make that most people couldn’t afford them.

* Today, fully automated assembly lines exist in nearly every industry.

* But what are the downsides?

* First and foremost is the boredom that so many people experience when
they repeat one or two small tasks all day long.

* A number of innovative steps have been taken to make work on an
assembly line more interesting, and in the process, improve the quality
and productivity of the line.

* For example, workers in many plants have been given responsibility for
quality control.

* If they see something in the product that doesn’t look right, they can pull
a rope which halts the entire lines until the problem is fixed.

* Another innovation which has improved job satisfaction is the
organization of teams in which workers can perform a number of tasks,
rather than one set task.

* Some plants now have “craft stations” where a team of workers may
spend up to thirty minutes on dozens of separate tasks.

* Henry Ford might not agree with some of these innovations, but he
certainly was pleased by the first result of his new assembly line; but he
cut the cost of his cars by half and, for the first time, large numbers of
people could afford to buy them.
38. How were cars built before the assembly line?

A. Early automobiles were simple to construct and took teams of workers thirty minutes to complete.
B. They were sold unassembled with instructions for putting them
together.
C. They were joined together one at a time, from start to finish
D. They were handcrafted on a conveyor belt.

39. What course would this talk be most appropriate for?

Small engine mechanics.
Twentieth-century American architecture.
Environmental science.
The history of American factory

40. What were some of the problems traditionally associated with assembly lines?

Assembly lines were so expensive to construct that no one could
afford to use them
B. Stagnation of employees.
C. Too much to do if workers were given responsibility for quality control.
D. Too many delays resulting from workers organizing into teams.

41. What can we infer from this talk about the connection between employee satisfaction and productivity?

Employees with good mood about their jobs possibly do a better job
Workers who participate in teams can produce cars in thirty minutes.
Most people can’t afford to buy a car unless they work on an assembly
line.
D. Increased worker responsibility for quality control causes decreased worker productivity.

42. According to the speaker, what did the early assembly line do for Henry Ford’s business?

It encouraged him to create teams of workers.
It put a lot of people out of jobs.
It gave him better quality control
It made his cars not so expensive

Questions 43 through 46. Listen to an American literature professor give an introductory lecture on a famous American author.

* Ernest Hemingway is one of America’s most beloved twentieth-century
authors. He was born in 1899.

* During World War One he served as a volunteer ambulance driver in
Italy, and he later served in the Italian infantry.

* Hemingway was badly wounded in 1918.

* Hemingway’s wartime experiences had a considerable influence on his
writing.

* In fact, most of his novels focus on the need for physical and
psychological strength to cope (overcome) with difficulty and often
violence.

* He was quite disillusioned (dissatisfaction) by the war and became a
leader of a group of young writers living in Europe who were known as
“lost generation”.

* Hemingway was fascinated by the sport of bullfighting and described it in
many of his novels and short stories.

* He also hunted big game in Africa, such as elephants, buffalo, lions, and
tigers.

* He described his experiences as a hunter in nonfiction book entitled The
Green Hills of Africa.

* Like Hemingway himself, his fictional heroes presented a tough (hard),
masculine image.

* Yet, his strong men had to courageously accept their fate.

* In the Old Man and the Sea, one of Hemingway’s most renowned
(popular) short novels, an old fisherman struggles for hours to bring in a
huge and beautiful fish-only to have the fish eaten by sharks.

* Toward the end of Hemingway’s life, he became sick, both physically
and mentally.

* This man, who had written so eloquently (fluently) about facing adversity
(difficulty) with courage and grace (mercy), committed suicide in 1961.
43. According to the speaker, what effect did Hemingway’s war experiences have on his writing?

They encouraged his interest in bullfighting and big game hunting.
They helped him develop his description of a group of World War One
ambulance drivers as the “lost generation.”
C. They made him concentrate on the need for strength and courage in
the face of danger.
D. They caused him to write many anti-war novels and short stories.
44. What did Hemingway describe in his book called The Green Hills of Africa?

His own experiences as a hunter in Africa.
His study of the origins of big game species in Africa.
His love of the sport of bullfighting.
An old man’s struggles to capture an elephant.
45. According to the author, how was Hemingway‘s own image similar to that of many of his fictional characters?

They were all disillusioned by war.
They shared a love of elephants and other big game.
They all had active memories of their service in the war.
They showed a strong, masculine image.

46. What irony does the speaker imply about Hemingway’s suicide?

A. His war wounds had all been cured.
B. He was relatively young and still writing novels and short stories.
C. He had recorded all his life about the need to face difficulty with
courage.
D. He had gracefully accepted the fact that he could no longer hurt in Africa.
Questions 47 through 50. Listen to this talk about pests and pesticides given in an environmental science class.

* We know that insecticides kill not only pests, but beneficial insects as
well.

* We want beneficial insects-or beneficials, for short-in our gardens
because they eat the pests that eat our plants.

* When we kill our beneficials, we make it easier for the pests to survive.

* In fact, without a substantial supply of beneficials, pests control for
gardens is temporary at best.

* Many beneficial insects are sold at garden centers and by mail.

* But most gardens are already alive with native beneficials such as
ladybugs (kepik), suffrage flies, and parasitic wasps (tawon).

* With proper design of the garden and good gardening practices, these
beneficials can be encountered to stay in the garden, multiply, and eat
pests.

* Beneficial insects require lots of energy to search for prey (mangsa).

* When pests are scarce, beneficials rely on pollen, a source of protein,
and plant nectar, a source of carbohydrates, for energy.

* Certain plants should be planted in the garden specifically to attract
beneficials.

* These are plants which produce large quantities of pollen and nectar.

* In the garden, beneficial insects generally prefer one of two
environments.

* Some such as ground spiders and beetles, look for food on the ground.

* Others look for prey in the leaves or flowers of garden plans high above
the ground.

* Since it requires lot of energy maneuver through garden plants, these
high-flying beneficials are the ones most attracted to the nectar and
pollen-producing plants.

* Beneficials are also distinguishable by their eating habits.

* Some, known as specialists, are choosy about what they eat.

* Others eat all sorts of pests.
* These generalists are important because when a particular pest is
scarce, there are others to eat.

* A garden should have both specialists and generalists.
47. According to the speaker, why is it undesirable to use insecticides on a garden?

Insecticides reduce the amount of pollen and nectar produced by
flowers.
Insecticides encourage pests to stay in the garden and multiply.
Insecticides kill helpful insects as well as pests.
Insecticides give beneficial energy to search for prey.

48. According to the speaker, how does growing the right plants help reduce pests?

By giving beneficial with the nectar and pollen they need for energy.
By reducing the amount of food for pests, which induces them to kill
each other.
C. By providing large amounts of protein and carbohydrates, which are
bad for pests.
D. By providing enough pollen and nectar to kill ladybugs, suffrage flies, and parasitic wasps.

49. What are the two different environments in which beneficials search for prey?

A. Some look for pests in garden centers where plants are plentiful; others look in smaller gardens.
B. Some seek for food on the ground; others look higher in the leaves and flowers of plants.
C. Some look only in plants which produce pollen; others look only in
nectar-producing plants.
D. Some look for bugs in plants with shallow flowers; others look in
sunflowers and fetches.
50. In this talk, what are specialists and generalists?
Specialists are choosy eaters; generalists eat lots of different pests.
Specialists eat bugs; generalists eat plants.
Specialists like pollen; generalists like nectar.
Specialists are ground spiders; generalists are beetles.

reading 14

1. Read the passage quickly and underlined the words that you don’t know

The fact that most Americans live in urban areas does not mean that they reside in the center of large cities. In fact, more Americans live in the suburbs of large metropolitan areas than in the cities themselves.

The Bureau of the Census regards any area with more than 2500 people as an urban area, and does not consider boundaries of cities and suburbs. According to the Bureau, the political boundaries are less significant than the social and economic relationships and the transportation and communication systems that integrate a locale. The term used by the Bureau for an integrated metropolis is an MSA, which stands for Metropolitan Statistical Area. In general, an MSA is any area that contains a city and its surrounding suburbs and has a total population of 50,000 or more.

At the present time, the Bureau reports more than 280 MSAs, which together account for 75 percent of the US population. In addition, the Bureau recognizes eighteen megapolises, that is, continuous adjacent metropolitan areas. One of the most obvious megapolises includes a chain of hundreds of cities and suburbs across the states on the East Coast from Massachusetts to Virginia, including Boston, New York, and Washington, D. C. In the Eastern Corridor, as it is called, a population of 45 million inhabitants is concentrated. Another megapolis that is growing rapidly is the California coast from San Francisco through Los Angels to San Diego.

2. Read again and use dictionary to look for the meaning of underlined words. After that list at least 20 words with their meaning

Vocabulary :

fact : fakta,kenyataan
live : tinggal
Urban : perkotaan
reside : berada
center : pusat
Cities : kota-kota
suburbs : daerah pinggiran kota
themselves : sendiri
regards : menganggap
consider : mempertimbangkan
boundaries : batas-batasan
According : menurut
Bureau : biro
political : politik
less : kurang
relationships : hubungan
integrate : mengintegrasikan
stands: tempat
term : istilah
general : secara umum
contains : berisi
surrounding : sekitar
population : penduduk
present : saat ini
reports : melaporkan
account : menyumbang
recognizes : mengakui
continuous : terus-menerus
adjacent : berdekatan
obvious: jelas
includes: termasuk
chain : rantai
across: diseluruh
states : negara
Coast : pantai
East : timur
Corridor : koridor
inhabitants : penduduk
concentrated : memusatkan
through : melalui
Rapidly : dengan cepat

3. Note a main idea of each paragraph
Main idea paragraph 1 :
The fact that the suburbs of large metropolitan areas more livable Americans
Main idea paragraph 2 :
Census bureau does not consider the boundaries of the city and suburbs a term use by the agency for integrated metropolis is MSA that contains the city and suburbs

Main idea paragraph 3 :
Megapolis including a chain of hundreds of cities and suburbs around the country in America

4. Read again and answer the questions given

1. Which of the following is the best title for the passage?
A. Metropolitan Statistical Areas
B. Types of Population Centers
C. The Bureau of the Census
D. Megapolises

2. According to the passage, where do most Americans live?
A. In the center of cities
B. In the suburbs surrounding large cities
C. In rural areas
D. In small towns

3. According to the Bureau of the Census, what is an urban area?
A. An area with 2500 people or more
B. An area with at least 50,000 people
C. The eighteen largest cities
D. A chain of adjacent cities

4. Which of the following are NOT considered important in defining an urban area?
A. Political boundaries C. Social relationships
B. Transportation networks D. Economic systems

5. The word integrate in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to?
A. benefit C. unite
B. define D. restrict

6. The word its in paragraph 2 refers to?
A. the MSA’s C. the city’s
B. the area’s D. the population’s
7. The word adjacent in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to?
A. beside each other C. the same size
B. growing very fast D. densely populated

8. According to the passage, what is a megapolis?
A. One of the ten largest cities in the United States
B. One of the eighteen largest cities in the United states
C. One of the one hundred cities between Boston and Washington
D. Any number of continuous adjacent cities and suburbs

9. Why does the author mention the Eastern Corridor and the California coast in paragraph 3?
A. As examples of megapolises
B. Because 75 percent of the population lives there
C. To conclude the passage
D. The Bureau of the Census is located there

5. Summary the text

Summary :

The outskirts of major metropolitan areas more livable American citizens . Americans perceive the census bureau in the region with over 2500 inhabitants as urban areas and have been admitted eighteen continuous megalopolis that is the area adjacent metropolitan areas .
6. And finally send the notes to dwi.sloria@raharja.info.

7. Submit your work in your BL102 iDu Class with the evidence, on time

reading 13

Vocabulary :

Seismologists : ahli gempa
devised : memikirian,merancang
scales : timbangan
measurement : pengukuran
enable : memungkinkan
describe : menggambarkan
record : merekam
earthquakes : gempa bumi
terms : secara
widely : secara luas,luas
known : dikenal
developed : dikembangkan
amplitude : amplitudo
trace : jejak
formulated : merumuskan
epicenter : pusat gempa bumi
magnitude : besarnya
increase : meningkatkan
released: melepaskan
put : menempatkan
Considered : dianggap
each : setiap,masing-masing
Great : besar
major : utama
expected : memperkirakan
caused : menyebabkan
Damage : kerusakan
felt : dirasakan
assessment : penilaian
shaking : guncangan
gradations : gradasi
dissipate : menghilang
distance : jarak
depends : tergantung
site : lokasi
basically : pada dasarnya
correlated: menghubungkan
roughly : dengan kasar
understood : dipahami
passed : lulus
estimated : diperkirakan
almost : hampir
occur : terjadi
minor : kecil
undetected : tidak terdeteksi
Really : benar-benar
thousand : ribu

Main idea paragraph 1 :
A description of the measurement of earthquake with magnitude

Main idea paragraph 2 :
The size of the earthquake in the richter scale

Main idea paragraph 3 :
Measuring the intensity of earthquake- assessment

Main idea paragraph 4 :
Nearly one million earthquake occur each year, but most of them pass undetected

1. Which of the following is the main topic of the passage?
A. Earthquakes
B. The Richter scale
C. Charles F. Richter
D. Seismography

2. According to information in the passage, what does the Richter scale record?
A. The distance from the epicenter
B. The amplitude of the largest trace
C. The degree of damage
D. The location of the epicenter

3. The word standard in paragraph 1 could best be replaced by?
A. reliable
B. complex
C. conventional
D. abandoned

4. What is the value of the tables?
A. They allow us to interpret the magnitude of earthquakes
B. They help us to calculate our distance from earthquakes
C. They record all earthquakes
D. They release the energy of earthquakes

5. How does each number on the Richter scale compare?
A. Each number is one hundred times as strong as the previous number
B. Each magnitude is ten times stronger than the previous magnitude
C. The strength of each magnitude is one less than the previous magnitude
D. The scale decreases by five or six for each number

6. What does the author means by the statement :
Because the effects of such shaking dissipate with distance from the epicenter of the earthquake, the Mercalli rating depends on the site of the measurement?
A. The Mercalli rating will vary depending on the location of the measurement
B. The results of the Mercalli rating are less accurate at greater distances from the epicenter
C. The stronger shaking of the earthquake at the center is not detected by the Mercalli rating
D. The Mercalli rating is useful because it is taken farther away from the center of the Earthquake

7. The word undetected in paragraph 4 is closest in meaning to?
A. with no damage
B. with no notice
C. with no name
D. with no problem

8. With which of the following statements would the author most probably agree?
A. Only the Richter scale describes earthquakes in quantitative terms
B. Both the Richter scale and the Mercalli Scale measure earthquakes in the same way
C. Most earthquakes are measurable on either the Richter or the Mercalli scale
D. The Mercalli and the Richter scales are different but they can be compared

9. The passage discusses all of the following in the explanation of the Richter scale EXCEPT?
A. It was introduced in 1935
B. It was developed by an American seismologist
C. It has a scale of 1 to 12
D. It measures the magnitude of earthquakes

Summary :

There are two scale to measure earthquakes, the Richter scale to measure earthquake size and scale Macalli to measure the intensity of shaking that occurs during earthquake

reading 12

Vocabulary :
Although : meskipun
Noise : kebisingan
defined : menggambarkan
unwanted : tak dikehendaki
widely : luas,secara luas
recognized : mengenali
measure : diukur
discomfort : ketidaknyamanan
experienced : mengalami
Exposure : paparan
slightly : sedikit
Loss : kerugian
advancing : memajukan
congested : menumpuk
harm : membahayakan
exposed : mengarahkan
detracts : mengurangi
Unlike : berbeda
covered : menutupi
eyelids : kelopak mata
against : melawan terhadap
lid : penutup
vulnerable : rentan
penetrates : menembus
Becomes : menjadi
accustomed : membiasakan
Loud : nyaring,keras
instinctively : naluriah
Including : termasuk
Hearbeat : denyut jantung
respiration : pernapasan
accelerate : mempercepat
vessels : pembuluh
Constrict : penyempitan
pales : pucat
muscles : otot
tense : tegang
brought : membawa
Increase : meningkatkan
flow : aliran
fear : takut
persist : bertahan
occasionally : adakalanya
ceased: berhenti
unavoidable : tidak dapat dihindari
constantly : konstan,terus-menerus
Recently : baru-baru ini
concluded : Menyimpulkan
annoyance : gangguan
threat : ancaman
well-being : kesejahteraan
damage : kerusakan
stomach : perut
disease : penyakit
ulcers : bisul
Fetuses : janin
tend : cenderung
gastrointestinal : pencernaan
Irritability : sifat lekas marah
anxiety : kegelisahan
interact : saling berhubungan
affecting : mempengaruhi

3. Note a main idea of each paragraph

Main idea paragraph 1 :
Description of noise.

Main idea paragraph 2 :
Penetrating noise without ear protection

Main idea paragraph 3 :
Noise effect may oose a serious threat to our phyisical and psychological health

Main idea Paragraph 4 :
Noise becomes a serious threat to the physical and psychological health and well-being

4. Read again and answer the questions given.

1. Which of the following is the author’s main point?
A. Noise may pose a serious threat to our physical and psychological health
B. Loud noises signal danger
C. Hearing loss is America’s number one nonfatal health problem
D. The ear is not like the eye

2. According to the passage, what is noise?
A. Unwanted sound
A byproduct of technology
C. Physical and psychological harm
D. Congestion

3. Why is noise difficult to measure?
A. It causes hearing loss
B. All people do not respond to it in the same way
C. It is unwanted
D. People become accustomed to it

4. The word congested in paragraph 1 could best be replaced by?
A. hazardous C. crowded
B. polluted D. rushed

5. According to the passage, people respond to loud noise in the same way that they respond to
A. annoyance C. damage
B. danger D. disease

6. The phrase as well in paragraph 4 is closest in meaning to which of the following?
A. after all C. instead
B. also D. regardless

7. It can be inferred from this passage that the eye?
A. responds to fear
B. enjoys greater protection than the ear
C. increases functions
D. is damaged by noise

8. With which of the following statements would the author most probably agree?
A. Noise is not a serious problem today
B. Noise is America’s number one problem
C. Noise is an unavoidable problem in an industrial society
D. Noise is a complex problem

5. Summary the text

Summary :

Noise has disturbed individual, and cause serious effects on physical health, psychological and well-being.

reading 11

Vocabularies:

Consisting : terdiri

Reality : kenyataan
Varied : bermacam-macam
Reflecting : mencerminkan
Diversity : keanekaragaman/perbedaan
Government : pemerintah
Reveal : menyatakan
Current : jaman sekarang
Fits : cocok/menyeseuaikan
Mold : membentuk
Reveals : mengungkapkan/memperlihatkan
Household : rumah tangga
Common : umum
descriptor : keterangan
percentage : nilai/keuntungan
least : paling sedikit
identifiable : memperkenalkan
growing : bertumbuh
toward : menuju
divorce : menceraikan
increased : meningkat
far : jauh
majority : mayoritas/sebagian besar
Claim : tuntutan
regard : menganggap/melihat
arrangement : pengaturan

MAIN IDEA:
Paragraph 1:
The traditional american family
Paragraph 2:
census statistics in american families
Paragraph 3:
The identification number of single parents households
Paragraph 4:
In the united states could be considered a close friend of the family because they are far away from family

Summary:
The nuclear family, consisting of a mother, father, and their children, may be more an American ideal than an American reality.

Questions:
1. Which of the following is the main topic of the passage?
The traditional American family

2. The word current in paragraph 2 could best be replaced by which of the following
Typical

3. The word none in paragraph 2 refers to?
Parents

4. How many single people were identified in the survey?
One third of the total surveyed

5. Who generally constitutes a one-person household?
A single woman in her late sixties

6. The word undervalues in paragraph 4 is closest in meaning to?
does not appreciate

7. The passage discusses all of the following reasons for an increase in single-parent households EXCEPT?
increased interest in parenting by fathers

8. With which of the following statements would the author most probably agree?
There have always been a wide variety of family arrangements in the United States